Charles Sellers, a historian whose work on early-Nineteenth-century America helped overturn the postwar consensus that democracy and capitalism developed in tandem by exhibiting that in actual fact they have been extra usually at odds, died on Thursday at his house in Berkeley, Calif. He was 98.
His spouse, the historian and thinker Carolyn Service provider, confirmed the demise.
The son of a Carolina farm boy turned oil government, Dr. Sellers drew inspiration from his circle of relatives’s rise to materials wealth, whilst he idealized the life they — and America — had left behind and castigated the aggressive, commodified capitalist life-style that subsumed them. “Capitalism commodifies and exploits all life, I conclude from my life and all I can study,” he stated at a convention in 1994.
Such language usually received Dr. Sellers labeled a Marxist. He wasn’t one, however he was a radical, each in his writing and in his politics — particularly throughout the Nineteen Sixties at the College of California, Berkeley, the place he spent most of his profession.
He was greatest identified for his e-book “The Market Revolution: Jacksonian America, 1815-1846,” printed in 1991, during which he argued that the fast growth of capital and business throughout that interval did extra than simply create a brand new financial system; it altered the whole lot, together with the manner folks worshiped, slept and even had intercourse.
Such adjustments, he posited, have been largely unwelcome, and the passionate response of most Individuals consolidated in the rise of Andrew Jackson, who as president took on the coastal elites, most famously in his veto of the Second Financial institution of the United States in 1832.
Dr. Sellers detested Jackson’s pro-slavery sentiment and Indian removing insurance policies. However he argued that the major object of the Jacksonians’ hatred was not Black folks or Native Individuals however capitalism and its benefactors. He additionally confirmed that by the finish of his second time period, Jackson’s motion, torn by inner contradictions and co-opted by moneyed pursuits, had largely collapsed.
“He noticed the Jacksonians as the final nice expression of a democratic sensibility doomed to be overthrown by a capitalist bourgeois sensibility,” stated Sean Wilentz, a historian at Princeton whose personal e-book, “The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln” (2005), additional developed a number of of the themes of Dr. Sellers’s e-book.
The e-book’s affect was profound, not less than inside tutorial historical past. A 1994 convention in London was devoted to it, and the idea of the market revolution has turn into a hard and fast a part of the area’s firmament.
“Sellers’s was the thesis that launched a thousand dissertations,” the historian Jill Lepore wrote in The New Yorker in 2007. “Proof of the market revolution appeared to be in all places; it appeared to elucidate the whole lot.”
Charles Grier Sellers Jr. was born on Sept. 9, 1923, in Charlotte, N.C. His father, whose forebears Dr. Sellers later described as “two-mule farmers,” had moved to the metropolis as a younger man to attend enterprise faculty, and by the time the youthful Charles was born he was rising quickly as an government at Commonplace Oil. Charles’s mom, Cora Irene (Templeton) Sellers, labored for a church society that supported missionaries.
Charles’s mother and father have been strict Presbyterians, and although he later disavowed faith, it coloured his childhood and later drove his dedication to progressive causes. As a teen, Charles grew to become interested by civil rights; he later recalled attending a gathering of the N.A.A.C.P. at which he was one among just a few white folks amongst a whole bunch of Black attendees.
He studied historical past at Harvard, however he delayed commencement till 1947 to affix the Military. Afterward he returned to North Carolina and obtained his Ph.D. in historical past from the College of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1950. He taught at the College of Maryland and Princeton earlier than shifting to Berkeley in 1958. He remained there till he retired in 1990.
Dr. Sellers’s first marriage, to Evelyn Good, resulted in divorce, as did his second, to Nancy Snow. Alongside together with his spouse, he’s survived by his brother, Philip; his sons, Grier and Steen; his daughter, Janet; and two grandchildren.
Amongst the first issues Dr. Sellers did when he received to Berkeley was be a part of the native chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality. Working with the chapter, he fought in opposition to housing and job discrimination round Berkeley, and in 1961 he traveled with a contingent to Mississippi to assist the Freedom Riders. Dr. Sellers was arrested, however he was let off with a suspended sentence.
In 1964 he was amongst the first and most vocal school members to assist the Free Speech Motion at Berkeley, which opposed efforts by the administration to curtail campus activism.
His involvement started when he noticed one among his colleagues arrested throughout a protest and put in a police automobile. Instantly, Dr. Sellers joined a number of college students in surrounding the automobile for hours.
He recalled sitting on high of the automobile when one other colleague handed by.
“Charles, what are you doing up there?” his colleague requested.
“What are you doing down there, Waldo?” Dr. Sellers replied, paraphrasing a citation from his hero, Henry David Thoreau, who had been imprisoned for not paying taxes as a protest in opposition to slavery and the warfare in opposition to Mexico. (“Waldo” referred to Ralph Waldo Emerson, who visited Thoreau in jail.)
Dr. Sellers’s radicalism gained him few buddies amongst the school, however the soft-spoken Southerner grew to become an inspiration for Berkeley’s extra militant college students. He launched Malcolm X when he got here to talk on campus, and he later spoke to a crowd of seven,000 at an anti-Vietnam Battle rally.
His activism didn’t disrupt his scholarship. Throughout the Nineteen Sixties he produced two volumes of a projected three-book biography of President James Ok. Polk, the second of which, “James Ok. Polk, Continentalist: 1843-1846” (1967), gained the prestigious Bancroft Prize.
Dr. Sellers spent the subsequent twenty years engaged on “The Market Revolution,” which he didn’t publish till a 12 months after he retired.
The e-book is however evocative of the Nineteen Sixties counterculture — each in its depiction of a precapitalist America awash in communal residing and free love and in its rejection of the work of postwar tutorial historians who, Dr. Sellers stated, tried to cover the actuality of sophistication battle in early America behind a veil of democratic consensus.
“I took alarm when historians armed the United States for Chilly Battle by purging class from consciousness,” he stated at the 1994 convention in London. “Muffling exploitative capital in interesting democratic garb, their mythology of consensual democratic capitalism purged egalitarian which means from democracy.”
“The Market Revolution” made waves even earlier than publication. It had been commissioned as part of the Oxford Historical past of the United States sequence, however the editor of that sequence, C. Vann Woodward — likewise a liberal, Southern historian who educated at Chapel Hill — rejected it as too vital and pessimistic about early American historical past.
Oxford College Press ultimately printed the e-book, however exterior the sequence. It drew intense admiration, but it surely additionally generated immense criticism. The historian Daniel Walker Howe, who had studied briefly beneath Dr. Sellers, wrote a complete Pulitzer Prize-winning e-book, “What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848” (2005), that many noticed as a direct critique of Dr. Sellers’s work.
“That Nineteen Sixties taste is what bothers lots of people about ‘The Market Revolution,’” Amy S. Greenberg, a historian at Pennsylvania State College, stated in an interview. “However he’s a author as a lot as a historian, and the image he’s drawing is an idealizing of the time.”
Although he performed intensive analysis for the third quantity of his Polk biography, Dr. Sellers by no means completed it. As an alternative, a number of years in the past he gave his voluminous notes to Dr. Greenberg, which she used to write down “Woman First: The World of First Woman Sarah Polk” (2019).